Tissue Culture – Advantages and Techniques
A propagation technique used under sterile conditions to produce plants is called as micro propagation or tissue culture. It makes use of seeds or plant parts to sterilize and kept in containers, with a growing medium of nutrient content. Sterilization is carried out to prevent the plant parts, seeds, containers or any other tissues from becoming infected with any micro organism. Almost all seeds under these conditions grow faster than the standard growing environment. By using this technique, exact copies of the donor plant can be made. This is very quick and efficient than usual propagation methods of divisions, pulling or cutting.
The sterile nutrient media is composed of nutrient solution, a gelling agent, sucrose, antibiotics and hormones. Four stages of plant tissue culture are establishment of a sterile culture, multiplication of propagules, Preparation of propagules and establishment in soil. Mostly all plant cells have the ability to regenerate a complete plant. It is according to this theory that tissue culture is relied on. By using this technique protaplasts, single cells, leaf pieces or roots can be regenerated into a whole plant. The main advantages of tissue culture are that many clones can be created from a single seed or plant part with very less time. So, rapid propagation is possible for plant species of long generation time and low seed production levels.
There is no seasonal restriction for seed germination. Tissue culture helps to eliminate diseases in plants by preserving under sterile environment. It keeps large number of plant species under cold environment in a small space. The methods for tissue culture include the cell culture, work area and materials, preservation and storage, maintenance, safety measures and procedures. After considering all the characteristics, the techniques such as media preparation, growth and morphology, cell feeding, sub culturing adherent cells, thawing frozen cells, freezing cells and viable cell counts have to be performed.